Administering Vaccinations

Vaccinations are given to provide immunity against certain infectious diseases. They produce their protective effect by inducing active immunity, providing immunological memory which enables the immune system to recognise and respond to any future exposure by a natural infection of the disease. Healthcare professionals administering immunisation vaccines must receive specific training in immunisation, and be […]


Urinalysis is the process of testing a sample of urine for abnormal contents. Abnormalities in urine may be indicative of a number of pathologies and diseases. Urine can be evaluated by its physical appearance, for example the colour and clarity; and by biochemical analysis of its contents. Urine can be tested for abnormalities at the […]

Temperature Measurement

The measurement of body temperature is an observation that can provide important physiological information. Core body temperature is maintained between 36 and 37 point five degrees Celsius and is regulated by the hypothalamus in the brain. Any deviation from the normal range may indicate disease or infection, deterioration in condition, or reaction to treatment. There […]

Suturing Procedure

The aim of suturing and good wound care is to minimise deformity and scarring and to prevent infection. There are some situations where closure by suturing is not appropriate. In these cases the patient should be referred to a surgeon from the appropriate specialty for further advice on management before closure is carried out. Once […]

Subcutaneous Injections

A subcutaneous injection is given into fat and loose connective tissue underlying the dermis. This route is used for administering small doses of non-irritating, water soluble substances. Subcutaneous tissue is not richly supplied with blood vessels, so medication is absorbed slowly. For this reason, it is the preferred route for administration of medications that require […]